The Pomeranian is a toy breed that is considered to be a part of the Spitz family. It is classed as a toy breed because of its diminutive size. Their roots are found in Germany and they are often referred to as the German Spitz. The Pomeranian is highly alert, stubborn, and very demanding of constant attention.
Pomeranians are considered to be a cobby dog, which means the dog is actually longer or shorter than it is tall. They are small and delicately boned with small legs and feet that are not too tall as to appear out of balance. They have a head that is shaped somewhat like a wedge with a sharp snout that makes them resemble a fox. Their ears are small and their tail should turn back over their back.
Pomeranian puppies will be born with only a small amount of fur and resemble a small rat. It usually takes several months for their tail to grow enough for it to lie over their back. Pomeranian puppies appear to be muscular but this feature disappears once they grow their long coat.
An adult Pomeranian will grow to be 3 to 7 pounds and they are considered to be one of the smallest breeds. Some of them may gain up to 15 pounds but these larger dogs do not fit in the breed standard.
Pomeranians have two coats, an undercoat and a top coat. The undercoat is soft, thick, and fluffy but the outer coat is long with straight, coarse hair. The male Pomeranian will shed his undercoat one time a year but the female will shed her undercoat when she is in season, after delivery of a litter, and in stressful times.
Generally the Pomeranian is a healthy breed which can have a life span of up to 20 years. Some of them may suffer from hip dysplasia or a collapsing trachea but it is rare in this breed. They are prone to dry eye and the formation of cataracts during their young adult years and this is the leading cause of blindness in dogs. They are also susceptible to skin problems such as dermatitis or hot spots. Because they are of the toy breed, they are also prone to having bad teeth. It is recommended that their teeth be brushed daily and professionally cleaned at least once a year.
The biggest thing that one must keep in mind is the constant dog grooming that must go with the Pomeranian. Because of their double coat and long hair, they must be brushed daily to avoid matting. Brushing also stimulates the skin and helps to prevent dry skin which produces a dandruff like effect. You will not need to trim the coat very often but bathing and brushing is necessary to a healthy, shiny coat. Pomeranian puppies will need to have a puppy clip until they shed their puppy hair and grow their adult coat.